> 苹果、谷歌强迫员工返回办公室,它们这么做不对! - 财富中文网
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苹果、谷歌强迫员工返回办公室,它们这么做不对!

苹果、谷歌强迫员工返回办公室,它们这么做不对!

GLEB TSIPURSKY 2022-04-22
采用混合优先工作模式的企业将在人才竞争中占据优势地位,那些因循守旧的企业则将落于下风。

格莱布?齐普尔斯基写道,采用混合优先工作模式的企业将在人才竞争中占据优势地位,那些因循守旧的企业则将落于下风。图片来源:盖蒂图片社

近期,谷歌(Google)发布了新版疫后工作政策,要求员工每周至少在办公室工作三天。这一政策的出台与许多普通谷歌员工的期望背道而驰。一项覆盖1000多名谷歌员工的调查显示,有三分之二的受访者对“被迫每周在办公室工作三天”感到不满,在该公司的内部会议和公开信中,许多员工威胁称,(与其屈服于该项疫后新政)自己宁愿离职,更有一些员工已经跳槽去了其他工作安排更为灵活的企业。

然而谷歌的领导层却不为所动,依然在为这项要求全体员工多半时间在办公室办公的政策进行辩护,并声称这是为保护公司社交资本(social capital,即员工之间的联系和信任)的必要之举。事实上,按照谷歌前人力资源主管拉兹洛·博克的说法,一周三天到办公室办公很可能只是一项过渡政策,谷歌领导层的最终目标是在未来几年内全面恢复办公室办公。谷歌前首席执行官埃里克·施密特对这一新政表示支持,他说,“我是个传统主义者,我认为,(要想让团队新人从岗位训练中受益,)到办公室办公必不可少。”

谷歌认为,重返办公室办公是保护企业社交资本的必然举措,这一立场与苹果(Apple)不谋而合,后者也提出了每周到岗工作三天的要求,同样引发了员工不满,许多人已经打算在被迫返回办公室办公时选择离职。

相比之下,亚马逊(Amazon)和推特(Twitter)等许多科技巨头在工作安排上就灵活得多,为员工提供了诸多远程办公的选项。包括全美互惠保险公司(Nationwide)、德勤(Deloitte)和应用材料公司(Applied Materials)在内,许多非技术企业也采用了此种做法。他们难道是置自己的社交资本于不顾吗?

显然不是。这些具有前瞻性的企业发现,混合办公甚至全远程办公并不必然导致企业社交资本的流失。

不过,如果企业只是试图将以办公室为中心的传统协作方法硬塞进混合办公和远程办公的模式之中,那么社交资本的流失将在所难免。正因如此,相关研究结果特别强调,有些企业因为在封城期间将疫情前既有的工作安排套入远程办公模式而蒙受了社交资本方面的损失。

不过研究表明,通过采用混合办公和远程办公领域的最佳做法,企业可以提高自身的社交资本。线上协作(virtual coworking)和线上闲谈(virtual watercoolers)便是两个很好的例子。在员工如何才能在混合优先工作模式中给出最佳表现方面,我进行了大量研究,并根据研究结果制订出了这些策略,又先后帮助18家企业(包括多家财富500强企业)完成了混合优先工作模式转型,因此,我可以自信地说,这些策略都经受了实战的考验。相关策略的运作原理如下:

线上协作

借助线上协作,员工可以享受到许多面对面协作所能带来的社交资本方面的好处,还能免受通勤之苦。在此过程中,小组成员可以一边开视频会议,一边处理各自手头的任务。

与在办公室隔间中工作时一样,员工在享受团队协作的好处的同时,也可以不受干扰地完成自己的工作。在遇到问题时,团队成员可以随时向其他同事进行提问,并快速得到解答。

由于岗位训练的本质就是前辈为新人解答问题、演示工作方法,所以线上协作可以完美满足这方面的需求。不过经验更为丰富的员工同样可以从中受益,在遇到非本专业的问题时,他们可能也会需要其他同事帮忙指点迷津。有些时候,有些问题通过短会或者简短说明可以更快得到解决。经常有员工为了获得这种协助而专门选择在协作会上处理那些更为复杂或棘手的任务。

有些时候,团队成员会单纯聊聊自己,说说工作和生活中的事情。这是在办公室办公的另一好处,同样也可以在线上协作中获得。

线上闲谈

另一种非常适合混合办公或全远程办公模式的技术是“线上闲谈”,与在休息室或饮水机旁闲谈一样,线上闲谈也可以帮助企业积累社交资本。各团队都要在自己使用的协作软件(例如Slack或微软的Teams)中创建闲谈群组,专供团队成员讨论与工作无关的私人话题。每天早上,无论是来办公室上班还是在家办公,所有团队成员都要回答以下问题,并将答案发送到群组之中:

1)总体感觉如何?

2)除了工作,最近在生活中还遇到了哪些有趣的事情?

3)工作进展如何?哪些工作进展顺利?碰到了哪些难题?

4)有什么其他团队成员对你或这个世界不了解的事情?说出一件

我们鼓励员工在回答问题时配上照片或视频,同时还要求他们最少对三位于当天更新信息的同事进行回复。这些问题大多讨论的是工作以外的生活,目的是帮助员工增进对彼此的了解。此类互动可以让员工显得更有人情味,从“人”的角度增进对彼此的了解,同时帮助企业积累社交资本。

其中也有一个关于工作的问题(列表中的第三个问题),其着眼点在于帮助团队成员了解其他人正在忙着哪些工作,进而提升团队的协作效率。

白天,团队成员可以在群组中自由发布各种私人内容,分享自己的生活,也可以对他人发布的内容进行回复。通过将强制性的晨间签到与自发的个人分享进行结合,我们可以在建立联系与培养信任之间实现良好的平衡,让不同偏好、不同个性的员工都能乐在其中。

简而言之,混合办公模式甚至全远程办公模式并不必然意味着社交资本的损失。只有在领导层给自己贴上“传统主义者”标签、将头埋进沙子中拒绝改变围着办公室转的传统做法时,这种工作安排才会削弱员工之间的联系。

谷歌、苹果等传统主义企业拒绝采用混合办公和远程办公领域的最佳做法(如线上协作和线上闲谈),而后又将社交资本方面的损失归咎于混合办公和远程办公模式。但也有更具超前思维和进步性的企业将会利用上述最佳做法不断积累社交资本、招募杰出员工,那些因工作安排不够灵活而离开谷歌、苹果等公司的员工就将投身到这些企业旗下。此类企业选择采用混合优先工作模式,而非对过去那种以办公室为中心的工作模式进行小修小补,如此一来,它们必将在人才竞争中占据优势地位,而那些因循守旧的企业则将落于下风。(财富中文网)

本文作者格列布?齐普斯基是一名行为科学家,前瞻规划咨询公司Disaster Avoidance Experts的首席执行官,也是《领导混合式远程团队:借助最佳实践获取竞争优势的基准手册》(Leading Hybrid and Remote Teams: A Manual on Benchmarking to Best Practices for Competitive Advantage)的作者。

译者:梁宇

审校:夏林

近期,谷歌(Google)发布了新版疫后工作政策,要求员工每周至少在办公室工作三天。这一政策的出台与许多普通谷歌员工的期望背道而驰。一项覆盖1000多名谷歌员工的调查显示,有三分之二的受访者对“被迫每周在办公室工作三天”感到不满,在该公司的内部会议和公开信中,许多员工威胁称,(与其屈服于该项疫后新政)自己宁愿离职,更有一些员工已经跳槽去了其他工作安排更为灵活的企业。

然而谷歌的领导层却不为所动,依然在为这项要求全体员工多半时间在办公室办公的政策进行辩护,并声称这是为保护公司社交资本(social capital,即员工之间的联系和信任)的必要之举。事实上,按照谷歌前人力资源主管拉兹洛·博克的说法,一周三天到办公室办公很可能只是一项过渡政策,谷歌领导层的最终目标是在未来几年内全面恢复办公室办公。谷歌前首席执行官埃里克·施密特对这一新政表示支持,他说,“我是个传统主义者,我认为,(要想让团队新人从岗位训练中受益,)到办公室办公必不可少。”

谷歌认为,重返办公室办公是保护企业社交资本的必然举措,这一立场与苹果(Apple)不谋而合,后者也提出了每周到岗工作三天的要求,同样引发了员工不满,许多人已经打算在被迫返回办公室办公时选择离职。

相比之下,亚马逊(Amazon)和推特(Twitter)等许多科技巨头在工作安排上就灵活得多,为员工提供了诸多远程办公的选项。包括全美互惠保险公司(Nationwide)、德勤(Deloitte)和应用材料公司(Applied Materials)在内,许多非技术企业也采用了此种做法。他们难道是置自己的社交资本于不顾吗?

显然不是。这些具有前瞻性的企业发现,混合办公甚至全远程办公并不必然导致企业社交资本的流失。

不过,如果企业只是试图将以办公室为中心的传统协作方法硬塞进混合办公和远程办公的模式之中,那么社交资本的流失将在所难免。正因如此,相关研究结果特别强调,有些企业因为在封城期间将疫情前既有的工作安排套入远程办公模式而蒙受了社交资本方面的损失。

不过研究表明,通过采用混合办公和远程办公领域的最佳做法,企业可以提高自身的社交资本。线上协作(virtual coworking)和线上闲谈(virtual watercoolers)便是两个很好的例子。在员工如何才能在混合优先工作模式中给出最佳表现方面,我进行了大量研究,并根据研究结果制订出了这些策略,又先后帮助18家企业(包括多家财富500强企业)完成了混合优先工作模式转型,因此,我可以自信地说,这些策略都经受了实战的考验。相关策略的运作原理如下:

线上协作

借助线上协作,员工可以享受到许多面对面协作所能带来的社交资本方面的好处,还能免受通勤之苦。在此过程中,小组成员可以一边开视频会议,一边处理各自手头的任务。

与在办公室隔间中工作时一样,员工在享受团队协作的好处的同时,也可以不受干扰地完成自己的工作。在遇到问题时,团队成员可以随时向其他同事进行提问,并快速得到解答。

由于岗位训练的本质就是前辈为新人解答问题、演示工作方法,所以线上协作可以完美满足这方面的需求。不过经验更为丰富的员工同样可以从中受益,在遇到非本专业的问题时,他们可能也会需要其他同事帮忙指点迷津。有些时候,有些问题通过短会或者简短说明可以更快得到解决。经常有员工为了获得这种协助而专门选择在协作会上处理那些更为复杂或棘手的任务。

有些时候,团队成员会单纯聊聊自己,说说工作和生活中的事情。这是在办公室办公的另一好处,同样也可以在线上协作中获得。

线上闲谈

另一种非常适合混合办公或全远程办公模式的技术是“线上闲谈”,与在休息室或饮水机旁闲谈一样,线上闲谈也可以帮助企业积累社交资本。各团队都要在自己使用的协作软件(例如Slack或微软的Teams)中创建闲谈群组,专供团队成员讨论与工作无关的私人话题。每天早上,无论是来办公室上班还是在家办公,所有团队成员都要回答以下问题,并将答案发送到群组之中:

1)总体感觉如何?

2)除了工作,最近在生活中还遇到了哪些有趣的事情?

3)工作进展如何?哪些工作进展顺利?碰到了哪些难题?

4)有什么其他团队成员对你或这个世界不了解的事情?说出一件

我们鼓励员工在回答问题时配上照片或视频,同时还要求他们最少对三位于当天更新信息的同事进行回复。这些问题大多讨论的是工作以外的生活,目的是帮助员工增进对彼此的了解。此类互动可以让员工显得更有人情味,从“人”的角度增进对彼此的了解,同时帮助企业积累社交资本。

其中也有一个关于工作的问题(列表中的第三个问题),其着眼点在于帮助团队成员了解其他人正在忙着哪些工作,进而提升团队的协作效率。

白天,团队成员可以在群组中自由发布各种私人内容,分享自己的生活,也可以对他人发布的内容进行回复。通过将强制性的晨间签到与自发的个人分享进行结合,我们可以在建立联系与培养信任之间实现良好的平衡,让不同偏好、不同个性的员工都能乐在其中。

简而言之,混合办公模式甚至全远程办公模式并不必然意味着社交资本的损失。只有在领导层给自己贴上“传统主义者”标签、将头埋进沙子中拒绝改变围着办公室转的传统做法时,这种工作安排才会削弱员工之间的联系。

谷歌、苹果等传统主义企业拒绝采用混合办公和远程办公领域的最佳做法(如线上协作和线上闲谈),而后又将社交资本方面的损失归咎于混合办公和远程办公模式。但也有更具超前思维和进步性的企业将会利用上述最佳做法不断积累社交资本、招募杰出员工,那些因工作安排不够灵活而离开谷歌、苹果等公司的员工就将投身到这些企业旗下。此类企业选择采用混合优先工作模式,而非对过去那种以办公室为中心的工作模式进行小修小补,如此一来,它们必将在人才竞争中占据优势地位,而那些因循守旧的企业则将落于下风。(财富中文网)

本文作者格列布?齐普斯基是一名行为科学家,前瞻规划咨询公司Disaster Avoidance Experts的首席执行官,也是《领导混合式远程团队:借助最佳实践获取竞争优势的基准手册》(Leading Hybrid and Remote Teams: A Manual on Benchmarking to Best Practices for Competitive Advantage)的作者。

译者:梁宇

审校:夏林

Google recently announced its new post-pandemic work policy, requiring employees work in the office for at least three days a week. That policy goes against the desires of many rank-and-file Google employees. A survey of over 1,000 Google employees showed that two-thirds feel unhappy about being forced to work in the office three days a week; in internal meetings and public letters, many have threatened to leave, and some are already quitting to go to other companies with more flexible options.

Yet Google’s leadership is defending its requirement of mostly in-office work for all staff as necessary to protect the company’s social capital, meaning people’s connections to and trust in one another. In fact, according to the former head of HR at Google, Laszlo Bock, three days a week is likely to be just a transition period. Google’s leadership intends to require full-time in-office work in the next couple of years. Ex–Google CEO Eric Schmidt supports this notion, saying, “I’m a traditionalist” and it’s “important that these people be at the office” to get the benefit of on-the-job training for junior team members.

Google’s position on returning to the office for the sake of protecting social capital echoes that of Apple, which is requiring a three-days-in-office workweek. That company is similarly meeting with employee discontent, with many intending to leave if forced to return.

By contrast, plenty of other large tech companies, such as Amazon and Twitter, are offering employees much more flexibility with extensive remote work options. The same applies to many non-tech companies, such as Nationwide, Deloitte, and Applied Materials. Are they giving up on social capital?

Not at all. What forward-looking companies are discovering is that hybrid and even fully remote work arrangements don’t automatically lead to losing social capital.

However, you do lose social capital if you try to shoehorn traditional, office-centric methods of collaboration into hybrid and remote work. That’s why research findings highlight how companies that transposed their existing pre-pandemic work arrangements onto remote work during lockdowns lost social capital.

Yet studies show that by adopting best practices for hybrid and remote work, organizations can boost their social capital. Two examples of such practices are virtual coworking and virtual watercoolers. I developed these strategies based on extensive research on how people function best in a hybrid-first model. Having applied them in helping 18 organizations transition to a hybrid-first model, including several Fortune 500 companies, I am confident they are battle-tested. Here’s how they work:

Virtual coworking

Virtual coworking offers many of the social capital benefits of in-person coworking without the stress of the commute. The process involves members of small teams working on their own individual tasks while on a videoconference call together.

This experience replicates the benefit of a shared cubicle space, where you work alongside your team members, but on your own work. As team members have questions, they can ask them and get them quickly answered.

This technique offers a wonderful opportunity for on-the-job training: The essence of such training comes from coworkers answering questions and showing junior staff what to do. But it also benefits more experienced team members, who might need an answer to a question from another team member’s area of expertise. Occasionally, issues might come up that would benefit from a brief discussion and clarification. Often, team members save their more complex or confusing tasks to do during a coworking session, for just such assistance.

Sometimes team members will just share about themselves and chat about how things are going in work and life. That’s another benefit of a shared cubicle space, and virtual coworking replicates that experience.

The virtual watercooler

Another excellent technique for a hybrid or fully remote format is the virtual watercooler, to replace the social capital built by team members chatting in the break room or around the watercooler. Each team establishes a channel in their collaboration software—such as Slack or Microsoft Teams—dedicated to personal, nonwork discussions among team members. Every morning, whether they come to the office or work at home, all team members send a message answering the following questions:

1) How are you doing overall?

2) What’s been interesting in your life recently outside of work?

3) What’s going on in your work: What’s going well, and what are some challenges?

4) What is one thing about you or the world that most other team members do not know about?

Employees are encouraged to post photos or videos as part of their answers. They are also asked to respond to at least three other employees who made an update that day. Most of these questions are about life outside work, and they aim to help people get to know each other. They humanize team members, helping them get to know one another as human beings, while building up social capital.

There is also one work question (No. 3 on the list), focusing on helping team members learn what others are working on right now. That question helps them collaborate more effectively.

Then, during the day, team members use that same channel for personal sharing. Anyone who feels inspired can share about what’s going on in their life and respond to others who do so. The combination of mandated morning updates with the autonomy of personal sharing provides a good balance for building relationships and cultivating trust. It fits the different preferences and personalities of the company’s employees.

* * *

So no, hybrid and even fully remote work don’t have to mean the loss of social capital. These work arrangements only lead to weakened connections when leaders who self-identify as “traditionalists” stick their heads in the sand and refuse to budge from their office-centric traditions.

Google, Apple, and similar traditionalist companies are refusing to adopt best practices for hybrid and remote work such as virtual coworking and virtual watercoolers, and then blaming hybrid and remote work arrangements for the loss of social capital. The people leaving Google and Apple due to their inflexible work arrangements are going to more forward-thinking, progressive companies that use best practices to build social capital and recruit excellent staff. These companies are adopting a hybrid-first model, instead of trying to incrementally improve on the office-centric model. Such companies will seize competitive advantage, and old-school companies will be left in the dust in the war for talent.

Gleb Tsipursky is a behavioral scientist, CEO of future-proofing consultancy Disaster Avoidance Experts, and author of Leading Hybrid and Remote Teams: A Manual on Benchmarking to Best Practices for Competitive Advantage.

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    <small></small>
      <kbd></kbd>
        <kbd></kbd>
        <bgsound></bgsound>